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Grimsby, United Kingdom contributions 61 helpful votes. Typical Austrian Charm. Charming hotel in the centre of Kitzbühel. Eggs are cooked to order if required.

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November 25, at am. De vijf sacrale wervels zijn met sacrale ribben vergroeid met het bekken zodat de wervelkolom stevig verbonden is met de achterpoten.

De voorste vier sacrale wervels zijn gepneumatiseerd. De staart is relatief kort; samen met de ook relatief korte romp zorgt dit voor tamelijk gedrongen proporties bij Tyrannosaurus , in tegenstelling tot de erg langgerekte vorm van de meeste theropoden.

Dit is verklaard als een aanpassing voor vergrote wendbaarheid: een korter lichaam heeft een lager traagheidsmoment en kan dus sneller ronddraaien.

De ledematen tellen 89 botten wat het totaal aantal beenderen bij Tyrannosaurus op ongeveer brengt. Hoewel het schouderblad nog een vrij normale omvang heeft, zijn de voorpoten zo opvallend klein, niet langer dan een mensenarm, dat het vaak de vraag oproept waartoe ze eigenlijk dienden.

Dit is echter een schijnprobleem dat vergeet dat kenmerken binnen een evolutionaire context verklaard moeten worden. De voorouders van Tyrannosaurus hadden veel grotere armen en de voorpoten zijn dus vermoedelijk gedegenereerd doordat ze juist nergens voor gebruikt werden.

Hun reductie leidde tot verwijdering van overtollige massa. Toch hebben ook paleontologen serieuze pogingen gedaan een functie vast te stellen: hulp bij het opstaan uit een liggende positie, [67] of, een suggestie nog van Osborn, het vasthouden van het wijfje tijdens de paring.

Voor de vondsten uit de jaren tachtig was de onderarm onbekend en te klein ingeschat door af te gaan op de situatie bij verwante soorten. De paleontoloog Kenneth Carpenter heeft er na een nieuwe vondst in MOR op gewezen dat de armen althans minder gedegenereerd zijn dan bij de Albertosaurinae en stelt dat dit wijst op een functie bij het vasthouden van de prooi.

Hij heeft een hefkracht per arm berekend van ongeveer tweehonderd kilo. Daarbij is erop gewezen dat Tyrannosaurus moeite zou hebben gehad de prooi met de armpjes te bereiken omdat zijn grote kop in de weg zat.

Het schouderblad is vergroeid met het ravenbeksbeen tot een os scapulocoracoideum. Het is de vraag of er zich middenin verbeende borstbeenderen bevonden; die zijn niet met zekerheid teruggevonden.

Aangegeven borstbeenderen kunnen betrekking hebben op vergroeide gastralia. Nog meer gereduceerd is de onderarm: de ellepijp en het spaakbeen meten bij dit exemplaar respectievelijk en millimeter.

Pronatie was dus onmogelijk wat betekent dat de handpalmen steeds naar elkaar wezen en nooit naar beneden gericht waren. De hand heeft maar twee zichtbare vingers — van een derde is alleen nog een gereduceerd middenhandsbeentje over.

De duimklauw is niet erg stevig en kon niet als een vervaarlijk wapen dienen zoals bij veel andere theropoden. De formule van de vingerkootjes is De achterpoten zijn juist relatief lang.

Omdat een enkele achterpoot het hele gewicht van het dier moest kunnen dragen, zijn ze stevig gebouwd en zeer zwaar gespierd.

Ze zijn bevestigd aan een eveneens robuust bekken. Het bovenste deel daarvan, het darmbeen of os ilium , vormt een lange horizontale plaat.

Dit biedt een in vergelijking met andere theropoden uitzonderlijk groot aanhechtingsvlak, tot bijna twee meter lang en meer dan een halve meter breed bij de grootste exemplaren, voor de dijspieren.

Het darmbeen dient ook als bovenkant van een diep heupgewricht waarin de dijbeenkop zijwaarts inpast. Van deze heupkop af kromt het dijbeen naar onderen.

Onderaan de heup zijn de beide schaambeenderen , de 1,2 meter lange ossa pubis , vergroeid in een ongewoon sterk verbreed naar voren gericht uiteinde of "voet", waarop het dier in een rechtop liggende stand kon rusten en dat bij het levende dier een zeer opvallend kenmerk geweest moet zijn.

De even lange zitbeenderen steken naar achteren. Door de vorm van het heupgewricht kan het dijbeen niet zijwaarts bewogen worden, maar slechts van voor naar achter en omgekeerd, voor een lopende beweging.

Omdat het zo zwaar belast wordt, is het dijbeen of femur het grootse bot in het lichaam, bij Sue centimeter lang.

Only a single Tyrannosaurus rex specimen has been conclusively shown to belong to a specific sex. Examination of B-rex demonstrated the preservation of soft tissue within several bones.

Some of this tissue has been identified as a medullary tissue, a specialized tissue grown only in modern birds as a source of calcium for the production of eggshell during ovulation.

As only female birds lay eggs, medullary tissue is only found naturally in females, although males are capable of producing it when injected with female reproductive hormones like estrogen.

This strongly suggests that B-rex was female, and that she died during ovulation. The shared presence of medullary tissue in birds and theropod dinosaurs is further evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between the two.

Like many bipedal dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex was historically depicted as a 'living tripod', with the body at 45 degrees or less from the vertical and the tail dragging along the ground, similar to a kangaroo.

This concept dates from Joseph Leidy 's reconstruction of Hadrosaurus , the first to depict a dinosaur in a bipedal posture. It stood in an upright pose for 77 years, until it was dismantled in By , scientists realized this pose was incorrect and could not have been maintained by a living animal, as it would have resulted in the dislocation or weakening of several joints , including the hips and the articulation between the head and the spinal column.

When Tyrannosaurus rex was first discovered, the humerus was the only element of the forelimb known.

The bones show large areas for muscle attachment, indicating considerable strength. This was recognized as early as by Osborn, who speculated that the forelimbs may have been used to grasp a mate during copulation.

Another possibility is that the forelimbs held struggling prey while it was killed by the tyrannosaur's enormous jaws.

This hypothesis may be supported by biomechanical analysis. Tyrannosaurus rex forelimb bones exhibit extremely thick cortical bone , which has been interpreted as evidence that they were developed to withstand heavy loads.

The M. A Tyrannosaurus rex forearm had a limited range of motion, with the shoulder and elbow joints allowing only 40 and 45 degrees of motion, respectively.

In contrast, the same two joints in Deinonychus allow up to 88 and degrees of motion, respectively, while a human arm can rotate degrees at the shoulder and move through degrees at the elbow.

The heavy build of the arm bones, strength of the muscles, and limited range of motion may indicate a system evolved to hold fast despite the stresses of a struggling prey animal.

In the first detailed scientific description of Tyrannosaurus forelimbs, paleontologists Kenneth Carpenter and Matt Smith dismissed notions that the forelimbs were useless or that Tyrannosaurus rex was an obligate scavenger.

According to paleontologist Steven M. Stanley , the 1 metre 3. Tyrannosaurus , like most dinosaurs, was long thought to have an ectothermic "cold-blooded" reptilian metabolism.

The idea of dinosaur ectothermy was challenged by scientists like Robert T. Bakker and John Ostrom in the early years of the " Dinosaur Renaissance ", beginning in the late s.

Histological evidence of high growth rates in young Tyrannosaurus rex , comparable to those of mammals and birds, may support the hypothesis of a high metabolism.

Growth curves indicate that, as in mammals and birds, Tyrannosaurus rex growth was limited mostly to immature animals, rather than the indeterminate growth seen in most other vertebrates.

Oxygen isotope ratios in fossilized bone are sometimes used to determine the temperature at which the bone was deposited, as the ratio between certain isotopes correlates with temperature.

This small temperature range between the body core and the extremities was claimed by paleontologist Reese Barrick and geochemist William Showers to indicate that Tyrannosaurus rex maintained a constant internal body temperature homeothermy and that it enjoyed a metabolism somewhere between ectothermic reptiles and endothermic mammals.

Such thermoregulation may also be explained by gigantothermy , as in some living sea turtles. In the March issue of Science , Mary Higby Schweitzer of North Carolina State University and colleagues announced the recovery of soft tissue from the marrow cavity of a fossilized leg bone from a Tyrannosaurus rex.

The bone had been intentionally, though reluctantly, broken for shipping and then not preserved in the normal manner, specifically because Schweitzer was hoping to test it for soft tissue.

Flexible, bifurcating blood vessels and fibrous but elastic bone matrix tissue were recognized. In addition, microstructures resembling blood cells were found inside the matrix and vessels.

The structures bear resemblance to ostrich blood cells and vessels. Whether an unknown process, distinct from normal fossilization, preserved the material, or the material is original, the researchers do not know, and they are careful not to make any claims about preservation.

The absence of previous finds may be the result of people assuming preserved tissue was impossible, therefore not looking.

Since the first, two more tyrannosaurs and a hadrosaur have also been found to have such tissue-like structures. In studies reported in Science in April , Asara and colleagues concluded that seven traces of collagen proteins detected in purified Tyrannosaurus rex bone most closely match those reported in chickens , followed by frogs and newts.

The discovery of proteins from a creature tens of millions of years old, along with similar traces the team found in a mastodon bone at least , years old, upends the conventional view of fossils and may shift paleontologists' focus from bone hunting to biochemistry.

Until these finds, most scientists presumed that fossilization replaced all living tissue with inert minerals.

Paleontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University in Montreal, who was not part of the studies, called the finds "a milestone", and suggested that dinosaurs could "enter the field of molecular biology and really slingshot paleontology into the modern world".

The presumed soft tissue was called into question by Thomas Kaye of the University of Washington and his co-authors in They contend that what was really inside the tyrannosaur bone was slimy biofilm created by bacteria that coated the voids once occupied by blood vessels and cells.

They found similar spheres in a variety of other fossils from various periods, including an ammonite. In the ammonite they found the spheres in a place where the iron they contain could not have had any relationship to the presence of blood.

Even moderately fast speeds would have required large leg muscles. This ankle feature may have helped the animal to run more efficiently.

Additionally, a study indicates that Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids were exceptionally efficient walkers.

Studies by Dececchi et al. The research team then applied a variety of methods to estimate each dinosaur's top speed when running as well as how much energy each dinosaur expended while moving at more relaxed speeds such as when walking.

Among smaller to medium-sized species such as dromaeosaurids, longer legs appear to be an adaptation for faster running, in line with previous results by other researchers.

The results further indicate that smaller theropods evolved long legs as a means to both aid in hunting and escape from larger predators while larger theropods that evolved long legs did so to reduce the energy costs and increase foraging efficiency, as they were freed from the demands of predation pressure due to their role as apex predators.

Compared to more basal groups of theropods in the study, tyrannosaurs like Tyrannosaurus itself showed a marked increase in foraging efficiency due to reduced energy expenditures during hunting or scavenging.

This in turn likely resulted in tyrannosaurs having a reduced need for hunting forays and requiring less food to sustain themselves as a result.

Additionally, the research, in conjunction with studies that show tyrannosaurs were more agile than other large bodied-theropods, indicates they were quite well-adapted to a long-distance stalking approach followed by a quick burst of speed to go for the kill.

Analogies can be noted between tyrannosaurids and modern wolves as a result, supported by evidence that at least some tyrannosaurids were hunting in group settings.

The finding may mean that running was also not possible for other giant theropod dinosaurs like Giganotosaurus , Mapusaurus and Acrocanthosaurus.

As a result, it is hypothesized that Tyrannosaurus was capable of making relatively quick turns and could likely pivot its body more quickly when close to its prey, or that while turning, the theropod could "pirouette" on a single planted foot while the alternating leg was held out in a suspended swing during pursuit.

The results of this study potentially could shed light on how agility could have contributed to the success of tyrannosaurid evolution.

A study conducted by Lawrence Witmer and Ryan Ridgely of Ohio University found that Tyrannosaurus shared the heightened sensory abilities of other coelurosaurs , highlighting relatively rapid and coordinated eye and head movements; an enhanced ability to sense low frequency sounds, which would allow tyrannosaurs to track prey movements from long distances; and an enhanced sense of smell.

By applying modified perimetry to facial reconstructions of several dinosaurs including Tyrannosaurus , the study found that Tyrannosaurus had a binocular range of 55 degrees, surpassing that of modern hawks.

Stevens estimated that Tyrannosaurus had 13 times the visual acuity of a human and surpassed the visual acuity of an eagle, which is 3.

Thomas Holtz Jr. He would suggest that this made precision more crucial for Tyrannosaurus enabling it to, "get in, get that blow in and take it down.

Tyrannosaurus had very large olfactory bulbs and olfactory nerves relative to their brain size, the organs responsible for a heightened sense of smell.

This suggests that the sense of smell was highly developed, and implies that tyrannosaurs could detect carcasses by scent alone across great distances.

The sense of smell in tyrannosaurs may have been comparable to modern vultures , which use scent to track carcasses for scavenging. Research on the olfactory bulbs has shown that Tyrannosaurus rex had the most highly developed sense of smell of 21 sampled non-avian dinosaur species.

Somewhat unusually among theropods, T. The length of the cochlea is often related to hearing acuity, or at least the importance of hearing in behavior, implying that hearing was a particularly important sense to tyrannosaurs.

Specifically, data suggests that Tyrannosaurus rex heard best in the low-frequency range, and that low-frequency sounds were an important part of tyrannosaur behavior.

The study speculated that tyrannosaurs might have used their sensitive snouts to measure the temperature of their nests and to gently pick-up eggs and hatchlings, as seen in modern crocodylians.

A study by Grant R. Hurlburt, Ryan C. Ridgely and Lawrence Witmer obtained estimates for Encephalization Quotients EQs , based on reptiles and birds, as well as estimates for the ratio of cerebrum to brain mass.

The study concluded that Tyrannosaurus had the relatively largest brain of all adult non-avian dinosaurs with the exception of certain small maniraptoriforms Bambiraptor , Troodon and Ornithomimus.

The study found that Tyrannosaurus' s relative brain size was still within the range of modern reptiles, being at most 2 standard deviations above the mean of non-avian reptile EQs.

The estimates for the ratio of cerebrum mass to brain mass would range from According to the study, this is more than the lowest estimates for extant birds Suggesting that Tyrannosaurus may have been pack hunters , Philip J.

Currie compared T. Currie's pack-hunting hypothesis has been criticized for not having been peer-reviewed , but rather was discussed in a television interview and book called Dino Gangs.

According to scientists assessing the Dino Gangs program, the evidence for pack hunting in Tarbosaurus and Albertosaurus is weak and based on skeletal remains for which alternate explanations may apply such as drought or a flood forcing dinosaurs to die together in one place.

Evidence of intraspecific attack were found by Joseph Peterson and his colleagues in the juvenile Tyrannosaurus nicknamed Jane. Peterson and his team found that Jane's skull showed healed puncture wounds on the upper jaw and snout which they believe came from another juvenile Tyrannosaurus.

Subsequent CT scans of Jane's skull would further confirm the team's hypothesis, showing that the puncture wounds came from a traumatic injury and that there was subsequent healing.

Most paleontologists accept that Tyrannosaurus was both an active predator and a scavenger like most large carnivores. Meers in A debate exists, however, about whether Tyrannosaurus was primarily a predator or a pure scavenger ; the debate was assessed in a study by Lambe which argued Tyrannosaurus was a pure scavenger because the Gorgosaurus teeth showed hardly any wear.

Ever since the first discovery of Tyrannosaurus most scientists have speculated that it was a predator; like modern large predators it would readily scavenge or steal another predator's kill if it had the opportunity.

Paleontologist Jack Horner has been a major proponent of the view that Tyrannosaurus was not a predator at all but instead was exclusively a scavenger.

Other evidence suggests hunting behavior in Tyrannosaurus. The eye sockets of tyrannosaurs are positioned so that the eyes would point forward, giving them binocular vision slightly better than that of modern hawks.

It is not obvious why natural selection would have favored this long-term trend if tyrannosaurs had been pure scavengers, which would not have needed the advanced depth perception that stereoscopic vision provides.

A skeleton of the hadrosaurid Edmontosaurus annectens has been described from Montana with healed tyrannosaur-inflicted damage on its tail vertebrae.

The fact that the damage seems to have healed suggests that the Edmontosaurus survived a tyrannosaur's attack on a living target, i.

It is not known what the exact nature of the interaction was, though: either animal could have been the aggressor.

In a battle against a bull Triceratops , the Triceratops would likely defend itself by inflicting fatal wounds to the Tyrannosaurus using its sharp horns.

Tyrannosaurus may have had infectious saliva used to kill its prey, as proposed by William Abler in Abler observed that the serrations tiny protuberances on the cutting edges of the teeth are closely spaced, enclosing little chambers.

These chambers might have trapped pieces of carcass with bacteria, giving Tyrannosaurus a deadly, infectious bite much like the Komodo dragon was thought to have.

Tyrannosaurus , and most other theropods, probably primarily processed carcasses with lateral shakes of the head, like crocodilians. The head was not as maneuverable as the skulls of allosauroids , due to flat joints of the neck vertebrae.

In , Bruce Rothschild and others published a study examining evidence for stress fractures and tendon avulsions in theropod dinosaurs and the implications for their behavior.

Since stress fractures are caused by repeated trauma rather than singular events they are more likely to be caused by regular behavior than other types of injuries.

Of the 81 Tyrannosaurus foot bones examined in the study one was found to have a stress fracture, while none of the 10 hand bones were found to have stress fractures.

The researchers found tendon avulsions only among Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus. An avulsion injury left a divot on the humerus of Sue the T.

The presence of avulsion injuries being limited to the forelimb and shoulder in both Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus suggests that theropods may have had a musculature more complex than and functionally different from those of birds.

The researchers concluded that Sue's tendon avulsion was probably obtained from struggling prey. The presence of stress fractures and tendon avulsions in general provides evidence for a "very active" predation-based diet rather than obligate scavenging.

A study showed that smooth-edged holes in the skulls of several specimens might have been caused by Trichomonas -like parasites that commonly infect birds.

Seriously infected individuals, including "Sue" and MOR "Peck's Rex" , might therefore have died from starvation after feeding became increasingly difficult.

Previously, these holes had been explained by the bacterious bone infection Actinomycosis or by intraspecific attacks. One study of Tyrannosaurus specimens with tooth marks in the bones attributable to the same genus was presented as evidence of cannibalism.

Tyrannosaurus lived during what is referred to as the Lancian faunal stage Maastrichtian age at the end of the Late Cretaceous.

Tyrannosaurus ranged from Canada in the north to at least New Mexico in the south of Laramidia. Tyrannosaurus remains have been discovered in different ecosystems, including inland and coastal subtropical, and semi-arid plains.

Several notable Tyrannosaurus remains have been found in the Hell Creek Formation. During the Maastrichtian this area was subtropical , with a warm and humid climate.

The flora consisted mostly of angiosperms , but also included trees like dawn redwood Metasequoia and Araucaria.

Tyrannosaurus shared this ecosystem with ceratopsians Leptoceratops , Torosaurus , and Triceratops , the hadrosaurid Edmontosaurus annectens , the parksosaurid Thescelosaurus , the ankylosaurs Ankylosaurus and Denversaurus , the pachycephalosaurs Pachycephalosaurus and Sphaerotholus , and the theropods Ornithomimus , Struthiomimus , Acheroraptor , Dakotaraptor , Pectinodon and Anzu.

Another formation with Tyrannosaurus remains is the Lance Formation of Wyoming. This has been interpreted as a bayou environment similar to today's Gulf Coast.

The fauna was very similar to Hell Creek, but with Struthiomimus replacing its relative Ornithomimus. The small ceratopsian Leptoceratops also lived in the area.

In its southern range Tyrannosaurus lived alongside the titanosaur Alamosaurus , the ceratopsians Torosaurus, Bravoceratops and Ojoceratops , hadrosaurs which consisted of a species of Edmontosaurus, Kritosaurus and a possible species of Gryposaurus , the nodosaur Glyptodontopelta , the oviraptorid Ojoraptosaurus , possible species of the theropods Troodon and Richardoestesia , and the pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus.

Tyrannosaurus may have also inhabited Mexico's Lomas Coloradas formation in Sonora. Though skeletal evidence is lacking, six shed and broken teeth from the fossil bed have been thoroughly compared with other theropod genera and appear to be identical to those of Tyrannosaurus.

If true, the evidence indicates the range of Tyrannosaurus was possibly more extensive than previously believed.

Since it was first described in , Tyrannosaurus rex has become the most widely recognized dinosaur species in popular culture. It is the only dinosaur that is commonly known to the general public by its full scientific name binomial name and the scientific abbreviation T.

Large predatory Cretaceous dinosaur. For other uses, see T. Genus synonymy. Species synonymy. See also: Specimens of Tyrannosaurus. Main article: Feathered dinosaur.

Main article: Physiology of dinosaurs. Femur thigh bone. Tibia shin bone. Metatarsals foot bones. Phalanges toe bones.

Main article: Feeding behavior of Tyrannosaurus. Main article: Tyrannosaurus in popular culture. Online Etymology Dictionary.

October 15, Geological Society of America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. In Larson, P. Tyrannosaurus rex , The Tyrant King.

Bulletin of the AMNH. Lucas, S. This material was used in an interesting 'half-mount' display of this dinosaur in London.

Currently the material resides in the research collections. Sue at the Field Museum. The Field Museum. Retrieved October 24, May 26, Bibcode : Natur.

The University of Manchester. September 18, Archived from the original on September 18, Tyrannosaurus Sue. Freeman and Company, New York.

Children's Museum of Indianapolis. Smithsonian Magazine. Cretaceous Research. USA Today. The Anatomical Record. March 22, Folio, University of Alberta.

Retrieved March 25, Journal of Zoology. The Dinosaur Heresies. New York: Kensington Publishing. January 1, Archived from the original on October 23, Historical Biology.

June July 1, Science News. August Journal of Paleontology. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoirs. December 1, New Scientist.

Retrieved October 16, One palaeontologist memorably described the huge, curved teeth of T. Archived from the original on September 29, Retrieved September 15, March 30, Dinosaur smiles: Do the texture and morphology of the premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary bones of sauropsids provide osteological correlates for inferring extra-oral structures reliably in dinosaurs?

MSc thesis. Western Illinois University. In Carpenter, K. Tyrannosaurus rex , the Tyrant King. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Biology Letters. March 7, The New York Times. Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved December 5, In Weishampel, D.

The dinosauria. Berkeley: University of California Press. Predatory dinosaurs of the world: a complete illustrated guide.

New York: Simon and Schuster. Paleontological Journal.

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